1897
1890

In Germany, anti-socialist laws are repealed.

Political History
1890

Britain annexes Zanzibar in Africa.

Political History
1890

American troops kill 200 Sioux Indians at the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

Political History
1890

Otto Von Bismarck, the Chancelor of Germany, resigns at Wilhelm III's insistence.

Political History
1891

Franco-Russian Agreement of 1891 diplomatically aligns France and Russia.

Political History
1892

Grover Cleveland is elected to a second term as president.

Political History
1892

Strikers at the Carnegie Steel Plant in Homestead, Pennsylvania kill ten Pinkerton detectives and wound many others as they protest pay cuts and demand recognition of their union. In July, the Pennsylvania militia restores order; the strike is not broken until November.

Political History
1893

President Grover Cleveland appoints the Dawes Commission to negotiate with Native American tribes in Oklahoma.

Political History
1894

The United States recognizes the Hawaiian Republic.

Political History
1894

Britain annexes Ghana. 

Political History
1894

Following the Panic of 1893, businessman Jacob S. Coxey proposes that the United States government issue $500 million to increase employment and the amount of money in circulation.

Political History
1896

Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson that "separate but equal" facilities for whites and blacks are constitutional. 

Political History
1896

William McKinley is elected President.

Political History
1897

The Olney-Pauncefote Treaty is signed between Britain and the United States, making territorial disputes subject to arbitration.

Political History
1898

The USS battleship Maine is blown up in the harbor of Havana, Cuba. The Spanish American War begins and forces from the United States defeat Spanish troops at Guantanamo Bay, El Caney, and San Juan Hill in Cuba.

Political History
1898

The Treaty of Paris ends the Spanish American War. Spain leaves Cuba and the United States gets control of Puerto Rico.

Political History
1898

Britain and France divide Nigeria.

Political History
1899

The United States and Germany divide Samoa.

Political History
1899

A three-year rebellion against American rule begins in the Philippines.

Political History
1899

Germany annexes Rwanda.

Political History
1900

William McKinley is reelected president.

Political History
1900

France annexes Morocco and gives Italy control over Libya, in a secret agreement between the two countries. 

Political History
1901

In Britain, Edward VII becomes the King. 

Political History
1901

Concentration camps are put into use by the British for captured Afrikaner in South Africa.

Political History
1901

Czar Nicholas II, who is later executed following the Russian Revolution, visits France.

Political History
1902

The Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy is renewed for another six years.

Political History
1902

The Reclamation Act in the United States provides funds for the irrigation of arid Western land by selling publicly owned areas.

Political History
1903

Following the Panamanian Revolution, the United States and Panama sign the Panama Canal Treaty, which gives the United States a 10-mile strip of land across Panama for $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000. 

Political History
1904

In the United States, Theodore Roosevelt is elected president.

Political History
1904

Roosevelt warns against European intervention in Latin American affairs as a way of protecting a sense of order and the interests of the United States.

Political History
1904

Britain and France sign the Entente Cordiale.

Political History
1905

The Emperor of Germany visits Tangier, threatening the interests of France in Morocco.

Political History
1905

Theodore Roosevelt initiates a peace conference at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, that ends the Russo-Japanese War. He is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1906) for his role as mediator.

Political History
1906

Theodore Roosevelt sends American troops to Cuba to quell a revolt.

Political History
1907

The United States Army starts constructing the Panama Canal.

Political History
1907

Theodore Roosevelt delivers a speech to Congress in which he advocates conserving natural resources. 

Political History
1908

The French fight a war in Mauritania, Africa, in an effort to colonize the country.

Political History
1908

William Taft wins the United States presidential election.

Political History
1909

American troops leave Cuba and José Gómez becomes president. For more infomation, see Library of Congress

Political History
1910

The Congo is renamed French Equatorial Africa.

Political History
1910

The Dawson Agreement is signed by leaders of the Nicaraguan Revolution, with oversight by a representative from the United States.

Political History
1910

In Morocco, France gains control over the port of Agadir.

Political History
1911

Fighting during the Mexican Civil War occurs so close to the border that United States citizens gather to watch.

Political History
1912

Theodore Roosevelt survives an assassination attempt.

Political History
1912

Woodrow Wilson is elected president.

Political History
1913

The Sixteenth Amendment of the Constitution allows the United States government to collect an income tax.

Political History
1914

World War I (1914-1918) breaks out between the Allies (Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, and Serbia) and the Central Powers (Austria -Hungary and Germany).

Political History
1916

Woodrow Wilson is elected to a second term as president.

Political History
1916

President Wilson tells Germany that unless they stop submarine attacks on unarmed ships, the United States will sever relations.

Political History
1916

The United States sends troops to Cuba to suppress a rebellion.

Political History
1917

President Wilson signs a resolution declaring war on Germany and Austria.

Political History
1917

British troops capture Baghdad and Jerusalem.

Political History
1917

The Bolsheviks seize power in the Russian Revolution.

Political History
1918

The Allies and Germany sign an armistice, ending World War I.

Political History
1918

In Germany, the Kaiser abdicates his post during the November Revolution. This revolt spreads to cities around Germany, ending when the Weimar Republic is formed in 1919.

Political History
1919

Congress passes the Volstead Act in America, which prohibits the sale and distribution of alcohol.

Political History
1919

After the first World War, the victors assembled a peace conference outside of Paris, France in January, 1919. While there were representatives from over 30 groups, the conference was dominated by the interests of the "Big Four:" France, Great Britain, United States and Italy. In support of the Balfour Declaration of 1918 by the British Foreign Secretary, Chaim Weizmann (1874-1952) led the Zionist Delegation. After the second Word War, he was a major party in the founding of Israel. 
The Treaty of Versailles also organized the League of Nations, a precursor to the United Nations founded in 1947. More isolationist factions in the United States persuaded the government to not sign the Treaty of Versailles. Instead the US signed an independent Treaty of Berlin which left out the League of Nations. See history.state.gov for more information. 

Political History
1921

The Hungarian Civil War breaks out as the former Austro-Hungarian emperor attempts to regain control of the country.

Political History
1921

The French colonize Mauritania and Niger.

Political History
1922

Germany and Russia sign the Treaty of Rapallo, the first alliance entered into since before the start of World War I. 

Political History
1922

The Fordney-McCumber Act raises tariffs on certain imports in order to help farmers in the United States.

Political History
1923

Warren Harding dies suddenly and Calvin Coolidge is sworn in as president.

Political History
1924

Calvin Coolidge is elected president.

Political History
1924

J. Edgar Hoover becomes director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Political History
1924

Charles Dawes develops the Dawes Plan, in an effort to collect German reparations.

Political History
1925

In Germany, Paul von Hindenburg is elected president.

Political History
1925

In an effort to avoid future wars, France, Germany, and Belgium sign treaties that reaffirm their shared borders.

Political History
1926

Paul Joseph Goebbels founds the Nazi Party newspaper Der Angriff.

Political History
1926

Rebels in Northern Morocco are defeated by French and Spanish troops.

Political History
1927

Calvin Coolidge orders the occupation of Nicaragua, soon after a civil war breaks out in the country.

Political History
1927

The Coolidge Conference is held in Geneva, Switzerland. Delegates from a number of countries discuss arms limitations.

Political History
1928

The Kellogg-Briand Pact, an attempt to outlaw warfare, is signed by 62 countries.

Political History
1928

Hermann Wilhelm Göring, along with twelve other Nazis, is elected to the Reichstag in Germany.

Political History
1929

American troops occupy Haiti.

Political History
1929

The French begin building the Maginot Line. These fortifications are intended to protect France's border from invasion; however, the Line does not stop German troops when it enters the country in 1940.

Political History
1929

The Young Plan is formulated by Owen Young, an American business executive. The Plan outlines a schedule for Germany's reparation payments.

Political History
1930

In Russia, Joseph Stalin forces the collectivization of farms.

Political History
1930

Adolf Hitler's Nazi party becomes the majority party when it wins 107 seats in the Reichstag.

Political History
1931

President Hoover proposes a moratorium on all World War I debts and reparations in an attempt to end the worldwide depression.

Political History
1932

Engelbert Dollfuss becomes the chancellor of Austria.

Political History
1932

The Geneva Disarmament Conference ends in conflict over Germany's demand to have the same military rights as other countries. 

Political History
1932

In the United States, Franklin Roosevelt is elected president.

Political History
1932

The French annex south Morocco.

Political History
1933

Adolf Hitler declares the start of the Third Reich after being elected chancellor of Germany.

Political History
1933

Franklin Roosevelt launches The New Deal, intended to lift the country out of an economic depression.

Political History
1933

In Cuba, Fulgencio Batista leads a military coup.

Political History
1933

Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany. The Dachau Concentration Camp is opened.

Political History
1933

Germany: President Hinderburg appoints Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany. The evening of the swearing in, January 30, 1933, Joseph Goebbles staged an assembly of SA and SS troops to greet Hitler further signifying the rise of Nazi power and the demise of the 14 year-old German democratic republic. 

Political History
1933

The Dachau concentration camp opens outside of Munich. 

Political History
1934

Adolf Hitler makes himself Führer of Germany by combining the offices of Chancellor and President.

Political History
1934

American troops leave Haiti.

Political History
1934

The Premier of Hungary, Gyula Gömbös, negotiates a diplomatic agreement between Hungary, Italy, and Austria.

Political History
1935

Germany renounces the Versailles Treaty's disarmament clause.

Political History
1935

Germany passes the anti-Semitic Nuremburg Laws.

Political History
1935

The United States Congress passes the Social Security Act, creating a pension system for the elderly, unemployed, and disabled.

Political History
1936

Britain sends troops to Palestine to mediate in a conflict between Jews and Arabs.

Political History
1936

George VI becomes the King of England after Edward VIII abdicates the throne. 

Political History
1936

The Spanish Civil War begins after General Franciso Franco invades Spain and becomes the head of the Nationalist government.

Political History
1937

An uprising in Morocco is suppressed by the French.

Political History
1937

Franklin Roosevelt delivers his "Quarantine the Aggressors," arguing that countries in favor of peace need to oppose treaty violations. 

Political History
1938

Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister, meets with Adolf Hitler to discuss his demands for Czechoslovakia.

Political History
1938

Anschluss, or annexation of Austria took place with the resignation of the Austrian Chancellor and passive acceptance of the Nazi occupation on March 12, 1938.

Political History
1938

Germany annexes Austria.

Political History
1939

Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Molotov-Ribbentrop mutual nonaggression pact. Germany invades Poland on September 1; two days later, Britain and France declare war against Germany and World War II begins. The first Nazi ghetto is established in Poland.

Political History
1939

On September 1, 1939 Poland was invaded by the Nazi regime and the Soviet Union. This marked the start of World War II. 

Political History
1940

German forces invade France.

Political History
1940

French Indochina is invaded by Japan; Saigon comes under Japanese control.

Political History
1940

Italy begins fighting against France and Britain after declaring war on the two countries.

Political History
1940

In the Lahore Resolution, the Muslim activist Muhammad Ali Jinnah proposes the creation of a state separate from India for Muslims living in the country.

Political History
1940

The Vichy regime is established in France, July 1940.

Political History
1941

Vichy French troops lose control over Damascus in Syria.

Political History
1941

The United States enters World War II after Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.

Political History
1941

Germany invades the Soviet Union. Japan attacks the United States naval fleet at Pearl Harbor. Germany declares war on the U.S. Germany begins mass deportations of Jews to Poland.

Political History
1942

American aircraft begin bombing Tokyo.

Political History
1942

The Panama Canal remains open throughout World War II, with the assistance of Colombia.

Political History
1943

The United States, Russia, and Britain decide to invade Germany through Western Europe.

Political History
1943

British and American troops defeat the German army in North Africa.

Political History
1943

Italy surrenders and German troops occupy Rome.

Political History
1944

Allied troops invade Germany and defeat German troops in the Battle of the Bulge.

Political History
1945

Germany surrenders; World War II ends.

Political History
1945

The United States drops two atomic bombs on Japan, in the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. 

Political History
1945

Germany surrenders on May 7, 1945. The Auschwitz concentration camp is liberated by Soviet troops. Japan surrenders in September and World War II ends.

Political History
1946

The United Nations is founded in Luxembourg.

Political History
1946

The United States and Britain form a commission named the Morrison-Grady Plan to decide the future of Palestine.

Political History
1946

The American Bernard M. Baruch represents the United States at the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission and presents his suggestions for controlling atomic energy.

Political History
1947

George Marshall, the secretary of state in the United States, develops a plan for the recovery of European nations following the end of World War II.

Political History
1947

President Truman announces that the United States will support countries that are threatened by communism.

Political History
1948

The United States government promises Europe significant financial support with the implementation of the Marshall Plan.

Political History
1948

Harry Truman is elected president.

Political History
1948

Burma gains its independence from Britain.

Political History
1948

Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated a year after India peacefully gains its independence from Britain.

Political History
1948

The State of Israel is established

Political History
1949

A United Nations ceasefire ends fighting between India and Pakistan over the territory of Kashmir.

Political History
1949

The United States, Britain, France, Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg enter into a defensive alliance upon forming the North American Treaty Organization. 

Political History
1950

The United States, in the defense of South Korea, fights against North Korea in the Korean War.

Political History
1950

McCarthyism begins when Senator Joe McCarthy makes a speech claiming that Communists had infiltrated the U.S. State Department.

Political History
1951

North Korea captures Seoul from the South Korean and American troops.

Political History
1951

The Marshall Plan ends and the United States stops financially supporting Europe.

Political History
1952

Dwight Eisenhower becomes president.

Political History
1952

The United States successfully builds a hydrogen bomb.

Political History
1953

Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, who had participated in the movement for Indian independence, becomes the first woman to lead the United Nations General Assembly. 

Political History
1953

President Eisenhower makes his "Atoms for Peace" speech in front of the United Nations, pledging not to use nuclear capabilities for destructive ends. This is the later basis for the International Atomic Energy Agency. 

Political History
1954

The Civil Rights Movement wins a significant achievement when the Supreme Court rules against segregation.

Political History
1954

The Geneva Agreement ends the French-Indochina War.

Political History
1955

Rosa Parks sits at the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama.

Political History
1955

Belgium, France, Great Britain, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg sign the Western European Union Accord, in an effort to make decisions that are coordinated amongst the countries.

Political History
1956

Israel invades Egypt after Gamal Abdel Nasser, the newly elected president of Egypt, nationalizes the Suez Canal. 

Political History
1957

France relinquishes control over the Saar region; this area becomes the tenth state of Western Germany.

Political History
1957

The Berlin Declaration of 1957 reiterates the responsibility of West Germany, France, Britain and the United States to reunify Germany.

Political History
1958

The United States and the United Nations intervene to end the Lebanese Civil War.

Political History