1897
1901

The Jewish Encyclopedia was edited by Dr. Isadore Singer and published by Funk & Wagnalls in New York. The contents of the 12 volumne set is now in the public domain and available at www.jewishencyclopedia.com

Jewish History
1903

In the city of Kishinev in what is now Moldova, the local newspaper incited riots against Jews over several days in April, 1903. 

Jewish History
1908

The Palestine Land Development Authority was established. Later known as the Israel Land Development Authority (ILDC), the authority was in charge of purchasing and cultivating land for the Jewish National Fund and for private individuals. Its first Chairman was Otto Warburg and its first director Arthur Ruppin. The company was instrumental in establishing settlements such as Nahalal, Tel Yosef, Ein Harod, and the first kibbutz, Degania. Many of its purchases were in the Sharon Plain, and the Hula valley. They also played a major role in developing Tel Aviv and the Hadar Carmel section of Haifa.

SOURCE: The History of the Jewish People, www.jewishhistory.org.il

Jewish History
1910

Twelve hundred Jewish families expelled from Kieve (Ukraine). 

Jewish History
1910

The first Yiddish school was founded in the United States. 

Jewish History
1914

Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers was established. This organizatoin latter commissioned Roman Vishniac to document poverty among rural Jewish communities in central Europe. 

Jewish History
1914

While approximately a half million Jews served in the Czar's army, Russians persecuted Jews throughout the early 20th Century. During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drove 600,000 Jews from their homes in Eastern Europe.

Jewish History
1917

British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, wrote to Lord Rothschild that British goverment would view with facour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.... Great Britain was the first world power to make such a declaration. BBC site, Jewish Virtual Library, Haaretz 11/2/2012 on the 95th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration. 

Jewish History
1918

Th 38th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers was composed largely of Jewish volunteers. In June 1918 they were sent to Palestine to help liberate the Eretz Yisrael area from Turkish rule. Several British battalions composed the Jewish Legion during the first World War. Many Americans also volunteered for service in advance of the US entry into the war.  More on The Jewish Legion

Jewish History
1933

On April 1, 1933, the Nazis carried out the first nationwide, planned action against Jews: a boycott targeting Jewish businesses and professionals....

On the day of the boycott, Storm Troopers (Sturmabteilung; SA) stood menacingly in front of Jewish-owned department stores and retail establishments, and the offices of professionals such as doctors and lawyers. The Star of David was painted in yellow and black across thousands of doors and windows, with accompanying antisemitic slogans. Signs were posted saying "Don't Buy from Jews" and "The Jews Are Our Misfortune."

Source: US Holocaust Memorial Museum

Jewish History
1933

A week after the boycott of Jewish-owned businesses, the government passed a law restricting employment in the civil service to "Aryans." Jewish government workers, including teachers in public schools and universities, were fired.

Source: US Holocaust Memorial Museum

Jewish History
1935

The Nuremberg Laws are instituted in Germany and widespread antisemitic restrictions are imposed upon German Jews. Jewish businesses are boycotted in Germany, inspiring similar antisemitic actions throughout Poland.

Jewish History
1935

The "Nuremberg Laws" excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or German-related blood." Ancillary ordinances to these laws deprived them of most political rights. Jews were disenfranchised (that is, they had no formal expectation to the right to vote) and could not hold public office.

Source: US Holocaust Memorial Museum

Jewish History
1935

Ca. 1935-38, Vishniac is commissioned by the European headquarters of the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) in Paris, the world’s largest Jewish relief organization, to photograph impoverished Jewish communities throughout eastern Europe.

Jewish History
1938

Vishniac is commissioned by the JDC to photograph thousands of Jewish refugees expelled from Germany in the Polish border town of Zbaszyn.

Jewish History
1938

The JDC commissions Vishniac to photograph the Werkdorp Wieringen, an agrarian training camp in the Netherlands where young German Jewish refugees learn agricultural and vocational skills in preparation for immigration to Palestine and other countries.

Jewish History
1938

Synagogues and Jewish businesses are destroyed throughout Germany on the night of November 9-10, Kristallnacht

Jewish History
1941

From September to November, 1941, the Nazi Einsatzgruppen troops kill over 55,000 Jews from three locations: Kiev, Minsk, adn Riga. 

Source: USHMM

Jewish History
1941

Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) shoot nearly 3,000 Jews at the Seventh Fort, one of the 19th-century fortifications surrounding Kovno (Lithuania).

SOURCE: USHMM

Jewish History
1942

Between January and September of 1942, the Nazi regime deports approximately 800,000 Jews from cities in Poland, the Netherlands and France to several concentration camps. 

Source: USHMM

Jewish History
1942

The Wannsee Conference is held to implement and coordinate the Final Solution, a plan to annihilate the Jewish people. Germany implements a policy of total destruction of European Jewry.

Jewish History